ارایه مدلی برای پیش بینی رقیق شدگی غیر طراحی در معادن زیرزمینی فلزی با لحاظ سیستم های مهندسی سنگ

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، گروه مهندسی معدن، دانشکده مهندسی معدن، نفت و ژئوفیزیک، دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود، شاهرود

2 استاد، گروه مهندسی معدن، دانشکده مهندسی معدن، نفت و ژئوفیزیک، دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود، شاهرود

چکیده

پدیده اضافه شکست و ریزش سقف و دیوارههای کارگاههای استخراج در معادن زیرزمینی، سبب بروز رقیقشدگی غیرطراحی و افت عیار ماده معدنی استخراجی میشود. مکانیزم پیچیده ایجاد رقیقشدگی غیرطراحی که از تاثیر پارامترهای مختلف و اندرکنش بین آنها حاصل میشود، سبب عدم امکان ارایه مدل پیشبینی رقیقشدگی غیرطراحی با دقت کافی از طریق روشهای غیرسیستمی می‌‌شود. در این مقاله با استفاده از رویکرد سیستمهای مهندسی سنگ که در آن اندرکنش بین پارامترها در نظر گرفته میشود، مدلی با دقت بالا برای این هدف ارایه شده است. به این منظور پس از انتخاب 8 پارامتر، به عنوان مهمترین پارامترهای موثر در ایجاد رقیقشدگی غیرطراحی، مراحل روش یاد شده شامل تشکیل ماتریس اندرکنش، کدگذاری ماتریس و تشکیل جدول ردهبندی، اندیس رقیقشدگی غیرطراحی 24 کارگاه از مجموعه معادن منگنز ونارچ محاسبه شده است. در ادامه با استفاده از سیستم مانیتورینگ فضای حفاری، مقادیر واقعی ترقیق غیرطراحی هر کارگاه اندازهگیری شده و از آنجا مدل پیشبینی رقیقشدگی غیرطراحی بر اساس اندیس رقیقشدگی غیرطراحی به دست آمده است. این مدل که یک رابطه توانی است دارای ضریب تعیین 89/0، ریشه میانگین مربعات خطاها 034/0، میانگین درصد مطلق خطاها 089/0 و درصد واریانس 87 است. در پایان با استفاده از این مدل، مقدار رقیقشدگی غیرطراحی 9 کارگاه جدید (غیر از 24 کارگاه یاد شده) پیشبینی و با مقادیر واقعی اندازهگیری شده، مورد مقایسه قرار گرفت. ضریب تعیین این پیشبینی برابر با 95/0 بود که این نشاندهنده کارآیی بالای مدل و رویکرد سیستمی در پیشبینی رقیقشدگی غیرطراحی کارگاههای استخراج زیرزمینی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Model For Prediction Of Unplanned Dilution In Underground Metal Mines Considering Rock Engineering Systems

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Mohseni 1
  • M. Ataei 2
  • R. Kakaie 2
1 PhD Student, Dept. of Mining Engineering, Petroleum and Geophysics, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
2 Professor, Dept. of Mining Engineering, Petroleum and Geophysics, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
چکیده [English]

The over-break and slough of walls and roof of stopes in underground mines leads to an unplanned dilution and ore grade reduction. The complex mechanism of unplanned dilution resulting from the effect of different parameters and interaction between them makes it impossible to provide an unplanned dilution model with sufficient accuracy through non-system methods. In this paper, a high-precision model in which interactions between parameters are considered is presented using the rock engineering systems approach. For this purpose, after selecting 8 parameters, as the most important parameters for unplanned dilution, the interaction matrix has been formed, matrix was coded and the ranking table was made and finally the index of unplanned dilution of 24 stopes from the Venarch Manganese mines has been calculated. Subsequently, using the cavity monitoring system, the actual values of unplanned dilution of each stope were measured and from there the unplanned dilution prediction model was obtained based on the unplanned dilution index. The model, which is a power relationship, has a coefficient of 0.89, root mean square error of 0.034, mean absolute error of 0.089 and a percentage of variance of 87. At the end, using this model, unplanned dilution of 9 new stopes (other than the 24 workshops) was predicted and compared with the actual values measured. The coefficient of this prediction is equal to 0.95, which indicates the high efficiency of the model and system approach in predicting the unplanned dilution of underground mining stopes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Underground stope
  • over-break and slough
  • unplanned dilution modeling
  • rock engineering systems

[1]     Ataei, M. (2015). “Underground Mining”. Shahrood University of Technology, Iran, pp. 190.

[2]     Saeedi, G., Rezai, B., Shareiar, K., and Oraee, K. (2008). “Quantifying level of out-of-seam dilution for longwall mining method and its impact on yield of coal washing plant in Tabas coal mine”.  In Proceedings of the International Seminar on Mineral Processing Technology, Trivandrum, India, 370-373.

[3]     Saeidi, O., Torabi, S. R., and Ataei, M. (2013). “Development of a new index to assess the rock mass drillability”. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 31(5): 1477-1495.

[4]     Chugh, Y., Moharana, A., and Patwardhan, A. (2004). “An analysis of the effect of out-of-seam dilution on coal utilization”. In Proceedings of the VI International Conference on Clean Technologies for the Mining Industry, University of Concepción, Chile, 18: 21.

[5]     Mathews, K., Hoek. E., Wyllie, D. C., and Steward, S. B. V. (1981). “Prediction of stable excavation spans for mining at depths below 1000 Metres in hard rock mines”. CANMET Report DSS, Serial No. 0SQ80-00, pp. 81.

[6]     Potvin, Y. (1988). “Empirical open stope design in Canada”. PhD Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1-350.

[7]     Mawdesley, C., Trueman, R., and Whiten, W. (2001). “Extending the Mathews stability graph for open–stope design”. Mining Technology, 110(1): 27-39.

[8]     Scoble, M., and Moss, A. (1994). “Dilution in underground bulk mining: implications for production management”. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 79(1): 95-108,

[9]     Nickson, S. D. (1992). “Cable support guidelines for underground hard rock mine operations”. PhD Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1-223.

[10]  Hadjigeorgiou, J., Leclair, J., and Potvin, Y. (1995). “An update of the stability graph method for open stope design”. CIM Rock Mechanics and Strata Control session, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 14-18.

[11]  Clark, L., and Pakalnis, R. (1997). “An empirical design approach for estimating unplanned dilution from open stope hangingwalls and footwalls”. In Presentation at 99th Canadian Institute of Mining annual conference, Vancouver, BC, 1-33.

[12]  Mine, R. (1986). “Empireical stope design”. PhD Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1-276.

[13]  Clark, L. M. (1998). “Minimizing dilution in open stope mining with a focus on stope design and narrow vein longhole blasting”. PhD Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1-336.

[14]  Wang, J., Milne, D., Yao, M., and Allen, G. (2002). “Factors influencing open stope dilution at Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting”. 5th North American Rock Mechanics Symposium, Toronto, Canada.

[15]  Annels, A. E. (2012). “Mineral deposit evaluation: A practical approach”. Springer Science & Business Media, 1-436.

[16]  Stewart, P., and Trueman, R. (2008). “Strategies for minimising and predicting dilution in narrow-vein mines–NVD Method”. Narrow Vein Mining Conference 2008, Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.

[17]  Suorineni, F., Tannant, D., and Kaiser, P. (1999). “Determination of fault-related sloughage in open stopes”.  International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 36(7): 891-906,

[18]  Wang, J. (2004). “Influence of stress, undercutting, blasting and time on open stope stability and dilution”. PhD Thesis, University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon, 1-279.

[19]  Henning, J. G., and Mitri, H. S. (2007). “Numerical modelling of ore dilution in blasthole stoping”. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 44(5): 692-703.

[20]  Jang, H., Topal, E., and Kawamura, Y. (2015). “Decision support system of unplanned dilution and ore-loss in underground stoping operations using a neuro-fuzzy system”. Applied Soft Computing, 32: 1-12.

[21]  Popov, G. N. (1971). “The working of mineral deposits”. Mir Publishers, 1-400.

[22]  Agoškov, M. I., Borisov, S. S., and Bojarskij, V. A. E. (1988). “Mining of ores and non-metalic minerals”. Mir Publishers.

[23]  Dunne, K., and Pakalnis, R. (1996). “Dilution aspects of a sublevel retreat stope at Detour Lake Mine”. Rock mechanics. Balkema, Rotterdam, 305-313.

[24]  Miller, F., Potvin, Y., and Jacob, D. (1992). “Laser measurement of open stope dilution”. CIM (Canadian Mining and Metallurgical) Bulletin, 85(962): 96-102,

[25]  Miller, F., and Jacob, D. (1993). “Cavity monitoring system”. Google Patents.

[26]  Anderson, B., and Grebenc, B. (1995). “Controlling dilution at the Golden Giant mine”. In Proceedings of the 12th CIM mine operators conference, Timmins.

[27]  Mah, S., Pakalnis, R. T., Poulin, R., and Clark, L. M. (1995). “Obtaining quality cavity monitoring survey data”. Proceedings of the CAMI, 95: 3.

[28]  Germain, P., Hadjigeorgiou, J., and Lessard, J. (1996). “On the relationship between stability prediction and observed stope overbreak”. Rock Mechanics, Aubertin, Hassani and Mitri (eds), 277-283.

[29]  Diakité, O. (1998). “Ore dilution in sublevel stoping”. PhD Thesis, Department of Mining and Metallurgical Egineering, Mc Gill University, Montreal, 1-131.

[30]  Yao, X., Allen, G., and Willett, M. (1999). “Dilution evaluation using Cavity Monitoring System at HBMS—Trout Lake Mine”. In Proceeding of the 101st CIM annual general meeting, Calgary.

[31]  Calvert, T., Simpson, J., and Sandy, M. (2000). “Open stope design at Normandy Golden Grove Operations”. Proceedings of MassMin, 653-659.

[32]  Uggalla, S. (2001). “Sublevel open sloping- design and planning at the Olympic Dam Mine, Underground Mining Methods: Engineering Fundamentals and International Case Studies”. Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, 8307 Shaffer Parkway, Littleton, CO 80127, USA, 239-244.

[33]  Ran, J. (2002). “Hangingwall sloughing mechanism in open stope mining”. CIM bulletin, 95(1064): 74-77.

[34]  Soyer, N. (2006). “An approach on dilution and ore recovery / loss calculations in mineral reserve estimations at the Cayeli mine, Turkey”. A Thesis submitted to the graduate school of Natural and applied sciences of middle east technical university, Citeseer, 1-102. 

[35]  Henning, J. G. (2007). “Evaluation of long-hole mine design influences on unplanned ore dilution”. PhD Thesis, Mc Gill University Montreal, 1-331.

[36]  Luo, Z.-q., Liu, X. M., Zhang, B., Lu, H., and Li, C. (2008). “Cavity 3D modeling and correlative techniques based on cavity monitoring”. Journal of central south university of technology, 15(5): 639-644,

[37]  El Mouhabbis, H. Z. (2013). “Effect of stope construction parameters on ore dilution in narrow vein mining”. Mster’s Thesis, Department of Mining and Metallurgical Egineering, Mc Gill University, Montreal, 1-98.

[38]  Tommila, E. (2014). “Mining method evaluation and dilution control in Kittilä mine”. Mster’s Thesis, Aalto University, 1-66.

[39]  Roux, P. J. L. (2016). “Measurement and prediction of dilution in a gold mine operating with open stoping mining methods”. PhD Thesis, Johannesburg University, 1-467.  

[40]  Hudson, J. (1992) .“Rock engineering systems. Theory and practice”.

[41]  Mazzoccola, D., and Hudson, J. (1996). “A comprehensive method of rock mass characterization for indicating natural slope instability”. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 29(1): 37-56.

[42]  Ali, K. M., and Hasan, K. (2002). “Rock mass characterization to indicate slope instability at Bandarban, Bangladesh; a rock engineering systems approach”. Environmental & Engineering Geoscience, 8(2): 105-119.

[43]  Rozos, D., Pyrgiotis, L., Skias, S., and Tsagaratos, P. (2008). “An implementation of rock engineering system for ranking the instability potential of natural slopes in Greek territory”. An application in Karditsa County. Landslides, 5(3): 261-270.

[44]  Younessi, A., and Rasouli, V. (2010). “A fracture sliding potential index for wellbore stability analysis”. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 47(6): 927-939.

[45]  Naghadehi, M. Z., Jimenez, R., KhaloKakaie, R., and Jalali, S. -M. E. (2011) .“A probabilistic systems methodology to analyze the importance of factors affecting the stability of rock slopes”. Engineering geology, 118(3-4): 82-92.

[46]  KhaloKakaie, R., and Naghadehi, M. Z. (2012). “Ranking the rock slope instability potential using the Interaction Matrix (IM) technique; a case study in Iran”. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 5(2): 263-273.

[47]  Naghadehi, M. Z., Jimenez, R., KhaloKakaie, R., and Jalali, S. -M. E. (2013). “A new open-pit mine slope instability index defined using the improved rock engineering systems approach”. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 61: 1-14.

[48]  Meten, M., Bhandary, N. P., and Yatabe, R. (2015). “Application of GIS-based fuzzy logic and rock engineering system (RES) approaches for landslide susceptibility mapping in Selelkula area of the Lower Jema River Gorge”. Central Ethiopia. Environmental Earth Sciences, 74(4): 3395-3416.

[49]  Zare, M., and Jimenez, R. (2015). “On the Development of a Slope Instability Index for Open-Pit Mines using an Improved Systems Approach”. Paper presented at the ISRM Regional Symposium-EUROCK 2015.

[50]  Benardos, A., and Kaliampakos, D. (2004). “A methodology for assessing geotechnical hazards for TBM tunnelling—illustrated by the Athens Metro, Greece”. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 41(6): 987-999.

[51]  Kim, M. -K., Yoo, Y. -I., and Song, J. -J. (2008). “Methodology to quantify rock behavior around shallow tunnels by rock engineering systems”. Geosystem Engineering, 11(2): 37-42.

[52]  Shin, H. -S., Kwon, Y. -C., Jung, Y. -S., Bae, G. -J., and Kim, Y. -G. (2009). “Methodology for quantitative hazard assessment for tunnel collapses based on case histories in Korea”. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 46(6): 1072-1087.

[53]  Huang, R., Huang, J., Ju, N., and Li, Y. (2013). “Automated tunnel rock classification using rock engineering systems”. Engineering geology, 156: 20-27.

[54]  Adoko, A., Wang, H., Jiao, Y., and Seitshiro, I. (2016). “Developing the Ground Index (GI) For Rock Collapse Assessment in Tunneling”. Paper presented at the 50th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium.

[55]  Fattahi, H., and Moradi, A. (2017). “Risk Assessment and Estimation of  TBM Penetration Rate Using RES-Based Model”. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 35(1): 365-376,

[56]  Seo, Y., Macias, F. J., Jakobsen, P. D., and Bruland, A. (2018). “Influence of Subjectivity in Geological Mapping on the Net Penetration Rate Prediction for a Hard Rock TBM”. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 1-15.

[57]  Latham, J. –P., and  Lu, P. (1999). “Development of an assessment system for the blastability of rock masses”. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 36(1): 41-55.

[58]  Faramarzi, F., Mansouri, H., and Farsangi, M. E. (2013). “A rock engineering systems based model to predict rock fragmentation by blasting”. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 60: 82-94.

[59]  Faramarzi, F., Mansouri, H., and Farsangi, M. A. E. (2014). “Development of rock engineering systems-based models for flyrock risk analysis and prediction of flyrock distance in surface blasting”. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 47(4): 1291-1306.

[60]  Bakhshandeh Amnieh, H., and Jafari, A. (2017). “Prediction of fragmentation due to blasting using mutual information and rock engineering system; case study: Meydook copper mine”. International Journal of Mining & Geo-Engineering, 51(1): 23-28.

[61]  Alipour, A., Mokharian, M., and Chehreghani, S. (2018). “An Application of Fuzzy Sets to the Blastability Index (BI) Used in Rock Engineering”. Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, 62(3): 580-589.

[62]  Rafiee, R. (2014). “Development rock behavior index around underground space using a rock engineering system”. Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 6(4): 46-56.

[63]  Rafiee, R., Ataei, M., Khalokakaie, R., Jalali, S. M. E., and Sereshki, F. (2015). “Determination and assessment of parameters influencing rock mass cavability in block caving mines using the probabilistic rock engineering system”. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 48(3): 1207-1220.

[64]  Rafiee, R., Ataei, M., and KhalooKakaie, R. (2015). “A new cavability index in block caving mines using fuzzy rock engineering system”. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 77: 68-76.

[65]  Rafiee, R., Khalookakaie, R., Ataei, M., Jalali, S., Sereshki, F., and Azarfar, A. (2016). “Improvement of rock engineering system coding using fuzzy numbers”. Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems, 30(2): 705-715.

[66]  Aghababaei, S., Saeedi, G., and Jalalifar, H. (2016). “Risk Analysis and Prediction of Floor Failure Mechanisms at Longwall Face in Parvadeh-I Coal Mine using Rock Engineering System (RES)”. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 49(5): 1889-1901.

[67]  Vaziri, V., Hamidi, J. K., and Sayadi, A. R. (2018). “An integrated GIS-based approach for geohazards risk assessment in coal mines”. Environmental Earth Sciences, 77(1): 29.

[68]  Jiao, Y., and Hudson, J. (1995). “The fully-coupled model for rock engineering systems”. Paper presented at the International journal of rock mechanics and mining sciences & geomechanics abstracts, 32(5): 491-512.

[69]  Saeidi, O., Azadmehr, A., and Torabi, S. R. (2014). “Development of a rock groutability index based on the Rock Engineering Systems (res): a case study”.  Indian Geotechnical Journal, 44(1): 49-58.

[70]  Ferentinou, M., and Sakellariou, M. (2015). “Introduction of an Objective Matrix Coding Method for Rock Engineering Systems Through Self Organising Maps”. Paper presented at the 13th ISRM International Congress of Rock Mechanics.

[71]  Hasanipanah, M., Armaghani, D. J., Amnieh, H. B., Koopialipoor, M., and Arab, H. (2018). “A risk-based technique to analyze flyrock results through rock engineering system”. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 36(4): 2247-2260.

[72]  Rafiei, M., Rahimpour-Bonab, H., Tavakoli, V., and Khorasani, E. (2016). “Quantifying sedimentary and diagenetic controls on fracturing: an application in rock engineering systems”. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 13(6): 928.

[73]  Hasanipanah, M., Armaghani, D. J., Monjezi, M., and  Shams, S. (2016). “Risk assessment and prediction of rock fragmentation produced by blasting operation: a rock engineering system”. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(9): 808.

[74]  Zhou, Q., Herrera, J., and Hidalgo, A. (2017). “Development of a quantitative assessment approach for the coal and gas outbursts in coal mines using rock engineering systems”. International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment, 33(1): 21-41 .

[75]  Akhyani, M., Mikaeil, R., Sereshki, F., and Taji, M. (2017). “Combining fuzzy RES with GA for predicting wear performance of circular diamond saw in hard rock cutting process”. Journal of Mining and Environment, 1-17.

[76]  Andriani, G. F., and Parise, M. (2017). “Applying rock mass classifications to carbonate rocks for engineering purposes with a new approach using the rock engineering system”. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 9(2): 364-369.

[77]  Li, Y., Wang, H., Chen, J., and Shang, Y. (2017). “Debris Flow Susceptibility Assessment in the Wudongde Dam Area, China Based on Rock Engineering System and Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm”. Water, 9(9): 669. 

[78]  Mahmoudi, E., Khaledi, K., Miro, S., König, D., and Schanz, T. (2017). “Probabilistic analysis of a rock salt cavern with application to energy storage systems”. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 50(1): 139-157.

[79]  Fattahi, H. (2018). “An Estimation of Required Rotational Torque to Operate Horizontal Directional Drilling Using Rock Engineering Systems”. Journal of Petroleum Science and Technology, 8(1): 82-96.

[80]  Mohseni, M., Ataei, M., and Khaloo Kakaie, R. (2018). “A new classification system for evaluation and prediction of unplanned dilution in cut-and-fill stoping method”. Journal of Mining and Environment, 4(9): 873-892.

[81]  Ajary Kumar, J., and Debasis, Deb. (2015). “Estimation of damage in an underground mine due to effect of surface blasting”. Journal of Geological Resource and Engineering , 4: 203-212.

[82]  Roy, M. P., Singh, P. K.., Sarim, M. D., Shekhawat, L. S. (2016). “Blast design and vibration control at an underground metal mine for the safety of surface structures”. International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Science, 83: 107-115.

[83]  Singh, P. K., Roy, M. P. (2010). “Damage to surface structures due to blast vibration”. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 47: 949-961.

[84]  Laubscher, D. H. (1977). “Geomechanics Classification of Jointed Rock Mass – Mining Applications”. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, pp. 86.

[85]  Mohseni, M., Ataei, M., and Khaloo Kakaie, R. (2018). “Presentation of a Model for Determination of dilution in Cut and Fill Mining Method”. PhD Thesis, Faculty of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Shahrood University of Technology, 1-183.

[86]  Diederichs, M. S., and Kaiser, P. K. (1996). “Rock Instability and Risk Analyses in Open Stope Mine Design”. Can Geotech J, Canada, 431-439.